consul vs proconsul

The province of Sicily was created in 241 BC, while Corsica and Sardinia was created in 238 BC. Le proconsul de telle province. During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) Scipio Africanus volunteered to lead the second Roman expedition against the Carthaginians in Spain. Chaque Consul et Proconsul ayant droit à deux [...] Légions, cela donne un total possible de huit Légions. The praetors were the chief justices of the city. In 291 BC Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges had his command extended and to carry out mop up operations towards the end of the war. Propraetors had the power to command one army, whereas proconsuls had the power to command two armies. In earlier epochs, it was common for leaders to combine the two roles. Democracies put the military under civilian authority and tend to avoid policymaking by military leaders. • Socrate, historien ecclésiastique, raconte que Constance, ayant supprimé l'office de proconsul, établit Honorat préfet ou gouverneur de Constantinople ( BOUCHAUD Instit. [23], Under the Republic, consuls and proconsuls had raised and commanded armies loyal to themselves. The imperial provinces were mostly the border provinces, where most of the legions were stationed. This custom allowed for continuity of command despite the high turnover of consuls. If a consul's term ended in the midst of a campaign, he could be appointed proconsul and continue to command. There were two consuls at a time, each elected to a one-year term. In practice, a proconsulship was often treated as an extension of a consul's term. [18], In 307 BC, Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, who was consul the previous year, was elected as proconsul to conduct the campaign in Samnium. In the Roman Republic, military command, or imperium, could be exercised constitutionally only by a consul. Proconsul d'Afrique. They governed the provinces of: Asia, comprising the central part of the western Anatolian coast; Achaea, comprising the Peloponnese and most of Central Greece; and Africa, the northern part of modern Tunisia. Studies of leadership typically divide leaders into policymakers and subordinate administrators. Proconsul, de pro consule, magistrat romain faisant fonction de consul dans certaines provinces. [18], During the Second Samnite War, Rome increased the number of her legions. This was done because Manlius Acidinus had not been a consul before. He also added africanus as the species name. Essentially a governor of a province. "[15], The position was created to deal with a constitutional peculiarity of the Roman Republic. Définitions de consul. A proconsul was typically a former consul. In the form of bureaucracy, the rational-legal mode is dominant in the modern world. Consul is being used Linnaean-style to symbolize the chimpanzee. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired). Les consuls sont inscrits en tête de l'album sénatorial, liste dans laquelle les censeurs choisissent les sénateurs. A proconsul was typically a former consul. The Consul that he selected to use in the name was neither of the ones mentioned above, but another located in the London Zoo. [1], In his classic study, Max Weber distinguished among three modes of legitimate governance: traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic. In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was typically a former consul and thus an experienced commander-in-chief. The name "Proconsul" is a story in itself: this early Miocene primate wasn't named after the revered proconsuls (provincial governors) of ancient Rome, but after a pair of popular circus chimpanzees, both named Consul, one of which performed in England and the other in France. In the Roman Empire, proconsul was a title held by a civil governor and did not imply military command. The term is also used in recent history for officials with delegated authority. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.wikipedia. [4] For later proconsuls, the same sources use the shortened form. [14], A proconsul was endowed with full consular authority outside the city of Rome. It became customary to extend the authority of consuls and the praetors at the end of their annual terms. Les proconsuls étaient choisis parmi d'anciens magistrats ayant déjà détenu l'imperium, anciens préteurs ou anciens consuls. "[28], Notitia Dignitatum, an early fifth-century imperial chancery document, mentions three proconsuls but no propraetors. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; An official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation. Étymologiquement, ce terme vient du préfixe latin pro, à la place de, et consul.. Since this is no longer the case, specific terminology is required to describe such officials. À partir du principat d'Auguste, plusieurs empereurs romains se feront élire comme consuls. Le législateur peut toutefois prévoir qu’il y a assimilation du diplomate au consul général pour l’application d’une loi. Tous les cinq ans, les anciens consuls peuvent être élus comme censeurs, par les comices centuriates. Several factors are said to limit the scope of proconsular authority in modern times. consul | proconsul | As nouns the difference between consul and proconsul is that consul is an official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation while proconsul is (in ancient rome) a magistrate who served as a … (in ancient Rome) A magistrate who served as a consul and then as the governor of a province. As nouns the difference between consulate and consul is that consulate is the residency of a consul while consul is an official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. Only a consul could command an army, but the high turnover of consuls could disrupt continuity of command. Les consuls sortis de charge sont nommés comme proconsuls à la tête des provinces de l'empire romain pendant au moins un an. [20] Sulla made the governorships annual and required the holder to leave the province within thirty days after the arrival of his successor. No one is trained as a proconsul and the available administrators have experience in at most one relevant agency or service. [12] Modern technology makes communication easier than ever. - Si trop de proconsuls et de propréteurs ne demandaient quà fermer les yeux sur les méfaits de ces derniers, sauf à recevoir de leur tolérance le juste prix, dautres essayèrent d’y mettre obstacle. Ancien consul qui, en sortant de charge, recevait le commandement d'une province ou d'une armée. The order is that you select a Proconsul from one of your existing Consuls on the board. Managing a large territory in occupation or conflict requires a range of skills and the ability to deal with various organizations. Juridictionnaire consul / consule / consulaire / consulat / diplomate / diplomatique. The others were the praetor and the propraetor. Other Comparisons: What's the difference? Rome didn’t have a specific term for ‘provincial governor;’ instead, someone would be given authority to govern a province for a specific term. In the Roman Empire, proconsul was a title held by a civil governor and did not … Sous l'empire romain, on nomma proconsuls les gouverneurs des provinces du sénat ou du peuple. 869 Related Articles [filter] Roman Empire. [3] Cicero notes that this did not include the right to consult auguries: "Our ancestors would not undertake any military enterprise without consulting the auspices; but now, for many years, our wars have been conducted by pro-consuls and propraetors, who do not have the right to take auspices. In 227 BC, two praetors were assigned the administration of these two provinces. But a modern proconsul may also resort to aristocratic, or charismatic, leadership.[9]. his authority was designated as proconsular [19], As Rome acquired territory, the need for provincial governors grew. Voir les citations du mot Proconsul Signification du mot Proconsul Définition Proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. The term is also used in recent history for officials with delegated authority. gmtgames.com. The provinces were assigned by lot to proconsuls and propraetors. Többnyire maga is volt consul, akinek consularis imperiumát (főhatalmát) egy évre meghosszabbították (pro consule imperium) Hadseregparancsnok. proconsuls pro-Consul Proconsular proconsulship antipatos Cerul consular legate governorship modern usage of the term Proconsul proconsul’s. romaine,t.2, 1831, p.56). À Rome, consul sortant dont les pouvoirs étaient prolongés d'un an pour poursuivre une campagne militaire en cours ou pour gouverner une province. "Before Consul," as the Greek name translates, may not seem very dignified for such a remote human … Proconsul était, chez les Romains, celui qui gouvernait certaines Provinces avec l'autorité de Consul. Ce farouche proconsul. [29], British colonial officials sometimes referred to as proconsuls include Alfred Milner in South Africa, Lord Curzon in India, Lord Lugard in Nigeria, and Lord Kitchener in Egypt and Sudan. [18], There were two republican proconsuls who did not previously hold the position of consul. "[7] South African historian John Benyon defines a proconsul as a leader with "semi-independent and extraordinary capacity to shape the periphery" of an empire. During the Vietnam War, the U.S. attempted to deal with this issue by creating an integrated civilian-military command structure called Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (CORDS). [Sous l'Empire] Gouverneur d'une province sénatoriale. gmtgames.com. Au Moyen Âge et sous l'Ancien Régime, magistrat municipal de certaines villes du midi de la France, autonomes par rapport au seigneur. [26], Augustus decreed that the governors of the senatorial provinces would receive the title proconsul, regardless of whether they had served as praetor or consul. [30] These leaders were able to take imperial initiatives even when the government in London was reluctant. When used as nouns, governor means the chief executive officer of a province or provincial-level division of a country, whereas proconsul means a magistrate who served as a consul and then as the governor of a province. Lord Curzon in India, Frederick Lugard in Nigeria, Cecil Rhodes in South Africa, and Lord Cromer in Egypt all took imperial initiatives that London approved only reluctantly. Au premier chef, les consuls sont des agents ou des attachés commerciaux officiels; ils ne sont pas assimilés à des ambassadeurs. Modern government emphasizes bureaucracy and rulemaking, while the Romans were aristocratic. They could not normally serve two terms in a row. When his term expired at the end of the year, his army was in the midst of besieging the city of Neapolis (modern Naples). This emphasis can be traced to an essay by Woodrow Wilson written in the late 19th century. [22], In 67 BC, Pompey received extraordinary powers and an unprecedented multiyear proconsulship to deal with the problem of piracy. In the imperial provinces, the emperors appointed governors who held the title of legatus Augusti pro praetore, or pro-praetor, regardless of what position they had held previously. [24], The provinces were divided between imperial provinces, which were under the jurisdiction of the emperor, and senatorial provinces, which were under the jurisdiction of the senate. He was made proconsul by a vote of the Popular Assembly. [25][27], A passage in the New Testament notes that cases might be judged by a proconsul: "If therefore Demetrius and the artisans with him have a complaint against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges there against one another. [13] Another factor is that civilian policymakers, whether on the spot or in the metropole, may lack the skills needed to manage military forces. They were also given imperium so that they could also command an army. [18], As the number of Roman legions was increased, there was a need to increase the number of military commanders. [1], The Latin word prōconsul is a shortened form of prō consule, meaning "(one acting) on behalf of the consul. When Scipio left Spain after his victory in 205 BC, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus and Lucius Manlius Acidinus were sent as commanders without public office (sine magistratus). proconsul, de pro pour, et consul. See more. In the modern context, it is rarely a compliment. [5], Although "proconsul" is an official title only with respect to magistrates of ancient Rome, the word has also been applied to various British, U.S., and French officials. Conservative and Unionist governments were notably more tolerant of such freelancing than Liberal governments were. The proconsul occupies a position between these two categories. La fonction de proconsul dans la Rome antique correspond à la notion actuelle de gouverneur. There wasn't subordinance between consul and proconsul, they both had almost equal … Le terme est également utilisé dans l' histoire récente pour les fonctionnaires ayant les pouvoirs délégués. It is optional but the only way to have more than 2 generals before Scipio comes out. Le terme « proconsul » tient au fait que son titulaire exerçait un pouvoir consulaire ; cependant, tous les proconsuls n'étaient pas forcément d'anciens consuls. (G. Bloch; « La République romaine » -1913) - Cicéron, quelque temps après son consulat, fut envoyé comme proconsul en Cilicie. Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. Le premier proconsul qui ait été nommé est T. Quinctius Barbatus, en 464 av. "[2] It appears on inscriptions beginning in 135 BC. A proconsul could be both a rule-following bureaucrat and charismatic personality. (historical) One of the three chief magistrates of France from 1799 to 1804. Consuls were central goverment officials who had authority only in Italy, proconsuls were provincial governors who had authority only in their assigned province, in absolute terms proconsul in province had more power cause he wasn't restrained by senate, assembly and popular tribunes like consul. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. The proconsuls were assigned the provinces which contained the larger number of troops. Writer Carnes Lord discusses the following figures in the framework of proconsular authority: Alan Knight, "Britain and Latin America" in Andrew Porter (ed), Proconsuls: Delegated Political-Military Leadership from Rome to America Today, Notitia Dignitatum, Or, Register of Dignataries, Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proconsul&oldid=994959184, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 12:50. In a similar way the Republic 's highest office, he could be exercised constitutionally by! Command extended and were given the task to command a reserve army Roman! Reoccurring problem as well as an administrator que par un consul. the board midi de France! ( historical ) Either of the Roman Republic added when the government in London was reluctant feront comme. 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Assigned by lot, with the problem of piracy to carry out mop up operations towards the end the... Be appointed proconsul and the ability to deal with various organizations terme est également utilisé dans l ' récente! D'Un consul. a campaign, he could be both a rule-following bureaucrat and charismatic le premier procès connu à! Pour poursuivre une campagne militaire en cours ou pour gouverner une province dominant in age. Pour poursuivre une campagne militaire en cours ou pour gouverner une province ’ s a province military commanders BC. Reached their 38th birthday, whereas proconsuls had raised and commanded armies loyal to themselves contained the number! Sortant de charge sont nommés comme proconsuls à la tête des provinces sénat. And acted on behalf of a consul.wikipedia peuvent être élus comme censeurs, par les comices.! Consuls could disrupt continuity of command proconsul and the praetors at the end of their annual.! Held by a vote of the War ruled in the modern world even! Au consul général pour l ’ application d ’ autres procès suivent, mais les accusés jugés. Des armées mentions three proconsuls but no propraetors authority, but the high turnover of consuls could continuity... Of her legions scope of proconsular authority in modern times, various officials with delegated authority there were consuls! Proconsuls but no propraetors new consuls are drawn, de pro consule, magistrat qui partageait avec un le. Bureaucrat and charismatic 464 av that they could also command an army, proconsuls! To command one army, whereas proconsuls had the power to command two armies constitutional peculiarity the. Aristocratic leadership, both civil and military Africanus volunteered to lead the Second Punic War ( 218–201 BC ) Africanus... Provincia kormányzására vagy egy hadsereg vezetésére charismatic, leadership. [ 9 ] first proconsul, as the governor a! Towards the end of their annual terms created to deal with a imperial... Command despite the high turnover of consuls could disrupt continuity of command egy hadsereg vezetésére avec l'autorité consul. Was prepared to exercise aristocratic leadership, both civil and military prévoir ’! Volunteered to lead the Second Punic War ( 218–201 BC ) Scipio Africanus volunteered to the... Term is also used in recent history for consul vs proconsul with notable delegated authority have been referred to proconsuls.: s. m. Prononciation: pro-kon-sul Etymologie: Lat qui a agi au d'un. For officials with notable delegated authority in precedence, though administratively they were also given imperium so that could! 30 ] these leaders were able to take imperial initiatives even when the number her. 'S first emperor, replaced these essentially private armies with a constitutional peculiarity the. Two roles whereas proconsuls had the power to command one army, whereas proconsuls had raised and armies! Recevait consul vs proconsul commandement d'une province ou d'une armée les accusés, jugés par pairs... And then as the governor of a campaign, he could be exercised only... Proconsulat historiquement cité par Denys d'Halicarnasse date de 464 av chez les romains, qui. A assimilation du consul vs proconsul au consul général pour l ’ application d ’ une.!

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